a) Divide an object into independent parts;
b) Divide an object into parts so that some its part can be easily taken away;
c) Increase the degree of object segmentation.
Take away an interfering part of the object. If some property of the object interferes,find what part of the object is a carrier of the property and separate it from the object.
If the object has symmetrical shape, make its asymmetrical. If the object is asymmetrical, increase the degree of asymmetr
a) Consolidate or combine identical parts or components of the object in space.
b) Consolidate or combine identical parts or components of the object in time.
If it is given two objects, which perform different function, design a new single object that would be able to perform both functions.
a) Place one object inside another. Increase a number of nested objects.
b) Make one object dynamically pass through a cavity of another object when necessary.
a) Compensate for the weight of the object with merging if with another object provides lifting forces.
b) Place the object into environment that provides aerodynamic, hydrodynamic or other lifting forces.
If the object is subjected to harmful factor of environment, subject it to antipodal action beforehand that will compensate with harmful factor.
a) If the object is subjected to harmful factor or environment, create preliminary conditions that will prevent the object from harmful factors.
b) If the object has to be changed and this is hard to achieve, perform the required change of the object (fully or partially) in advance.
If the object is unreliable, create conditions in advance that will prevent the object.
If the object has to be lowered or raised, redesign the object's environment so an object need not be raised or lowered.
a) Instead of actions defined perform opposite action.
b) Make the movable part of the object fixed or the fixed part movable.
c) Turn object upside-down.
a) Instead of linear parts of the object, use curve parts.
b) Use rollers, balls and spirals.
c) Use rotary motion. Use centrifugal forces.
a) If the object is immobile, make it movable.
b) Divide the object into parts capable of moving relatively each other. Increase the degree of free motion.
c) Make the object or environment dynamically change to be in accord with the required conditions at each stage of operation.
If it is not possible to precisely achieve the required change, or to perform some action, reformulate the problem: how to make slightly less or slightly more and then achieve the required result.
a) If the object moves along a line, consider movement within two-dimensional space.
b) If the object moves in plane, consider movement within three-dimensional space.
c) Rearrange objects so that instead of one-tiered arrangement a multi-tiered arrangement can be achieved.
d) Tilt the object.
e) Use other side of the given area.
a) Make the object or its parts vibrate.
b) If the object is in oscillatory motion, increase the frequency of oscillation. Use ultrasonic frequencies.
c) Use resonance frequencies.
d) Use piezoelectric vibrators instead of mechanical ones.
e) Use ultrasonic oscillations in combination with electromagnetic field.
a) Instead continuous action use pulse actions.
b) Vary periodicity according the conditions.
c) Use pauses between impulses to perform some other action.
a) All parts of the object must work continuously.
b) Eliminate all idle running.
If the object is subjected to harmful or hazardous actions within some process, conduct the process at very high speed.
a) Use harmful factors to achieve positive results.
b) Eliminate harmful factor by adding it with another harmful factor.
c) Amplify the harmful factor such degree so that it would stop to bring harm to the object or environment.
a) Introduce feedback.
b) If the feedback already exists, vary it in accord with operating conditions.
Use an intermediate carrier to provide necessary actions if it is not possible to use existing object or parts. Temporaries merge the object with another one that will provide the required action and then decompose them.
a) The object must serve itself by performing tuning, adjusting and repair operation itself.
b) Use available resources or waste resources.
a) If it is necessary to undertake some actions with respect to unavailable, fragile, complicated, dangerous object, use its simpler and cheaper copy.
b) Instead of real objects, use their optical images (picture, holograms).
) Use infrared or ultraviolet copies.
Replace an expensive object with a multitude of cheap ones.
Instead of solid object or its parts, use gases or liquids: inflatable and filled with liquids, air cushion, hydrostatic and hydro-reactive.
a) Instead of heavy three-dimensional structures use flexible shells and thin films.
b) Use flexible shells and thin films to isolate the object or its parts from environment.
a) Make the object porous. Use porous coating. Use porous inserts.
b) If the object is porous, fill the porous with other substance, liquid or gas to achieve positive result.
a) Change the color of the object, its part or environment.
b) Change transparency of the object, its part or environment.
c) Use color additions for observe bad seeing objects.
d) If color additions present, use radioactive tracers (marked atoms).
Make interacting objects of the same material or the material with identical properties.
a) If a part of an object that has delivered its function had become unnecessary or undesired, eliminate it by dissolving, evaporating, etc. or modify so that the interfering property will cease to exist.
b) Restore consumable parts of the object during operation.
a) Change the object's aggregate state.
b) Change concentration or consistency of the object.
c) Change the degree of flexibility of the object.
d) Change the temperature of the object or environment.
Use physical phenomena accompanying phase transitions: change of volume, emission or absorption of heat, etc.
a) Use thermal expansion or contraction of materials.
b) Merge two materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion.
a) Replace regular air with enriched one.
b) Replace the enriched air with pure oxygen.
c) Ionize air or oxygen.
d) Use ionized oxygen.
e) Use ozone.
a) Use inert gases instead of usual ones.
b) Add neutral parts or additives to the object.
Use composite materials instead of uniform ones.